Marduk primarily serves as the paramount deity of Babylon. He ties into the Babylon’s rise as a major cultural and political hub, especially under the rule of Hammurabi in the 18th century BCE.

People worship Marduk as a god of justice, mercy, healing, rejuvenation, magic, and equity. He influences storms and agriculture. Initially portrayed as a martial god, Marduk’s stories often describe him as a hero who restores order from chaos. His most renowned tale, the Enuma Elish, narrates his victory over Tiamat, the chaos and sea goddess. This victory helped him craft the cosmos, with the side effect that Babylon became a religious and political epicenter.


Typically, Marduk dresses in royal garb as a human figure, wielding a snake-dragon and a spade. The snake-dragon is Mušḫuššu and represents his dominion over chaos. The spade refers to his role in agriculture, which he had like any other important Mesopotamian god. As time progressed, Marduk possessed symbols of sovereignty and divinity: a scepter, a bow, and a thunderbolt.

Marduk’s principal sanctuary was located in Babylon. Here, the Enuma Elish was recited annually during the New Year’s festival, a celebration that reaffirmed Marduk’s reign over the deities and his role as the universe’s creator and maintainer. His cult spread beyond the gates of Babylon, deeply influencing various facets of Mesopotamian culture and even other cultures.

Myths in which he features

  • Enuma Elish: the Babylonian creation myth
  • The Anzu myth: in the Babylonian equivalent of this Sumerian tale (which we told), he takes on the role of Marduk.

Modern works featuring Marduk